Implant surface topography & osseointegration
Implant surface topography refers to macroscopic and microscopic features of the implant surface. The success rates of different commercially available implant systems vary. Several implant-related factors such as implant surface topography, chemical composition and surface roughness influence osseointegration. Titanium implants with adequate roughness influence the primary stability of implants, enhance bone-to-implant contact, and increase removal torque force.
The surface roughness of the implants can significantly alter the process of osseointegration because the cells react differently to smooth and rough surfaces: osteoblastic proliferation and collagen synthesis are
increased on rough surfaces.
focused its research on the factor of surface roughness and we used various techniques in order to compare our results with the best, universally recognized implant manufacturers.
The surface undergoes an electrochemical process of Anodic Oxidation –increasing the thickness of the implant’s natural layer of titanium oxide. This generates a new biomaterial – Nova Active Surface®, providing an especially porotic surface and several features: it is gray, with a titanium oxide layer that has a high level of crystallinity and phosphorus content.
Its microscopic topography does not display sharp features, but rather open pores, consistently distributed.
Pore dimensions 1-10μm!
Osteogenesis is based on the osteogenetic cells that proliferate on the Nova Active Surface® and develop into osteoblasts that secrete an non-calcified bone matrix. Following an apposition process, it calcifies and settles directly on the Nova Active Surface®.
The osteoblast is a polarized cell, thus creating a collagen bone matrix perpendicular to the Nova Active Surface®, penetrating all of the pores and providing a strong bone anchoring to the surface (high BIC).
These results were obtained through metallographic implant surface cross-section analysis in two locations: the base and at the end of the implant. The analysis accurately determined the depth and width of the dimples, as well as their geometry which is clearly visible on the image above. The surface is well-developed with large and small dimples which enhance osseointegration.
It is well established that the cell behavior on ahydrophilic surface is completely different from that on a hydrophobic one. Ahydrophilic surface is much better for osteoblasting process than a hydro-phobic surface. Therefore dental implants have been developed with high hydrophilic properties.
made chemical modifications for the Nano-surface resulting in increased wettability (i.e., in a hydrophilic surface rather than a hydrophobic one). In Nova Implants
technology the surface activity is achieved by using a mixture of components including hydroxyapatite bio-material as well as phased acid surface treatment. Several tests have been performed on Nova Implants
showing high activity and excellent hydrophilic property.
- Rapid osseointegrationNOVA ACTIVE vs SLA
The implant’s initial stability is generated by the mechanical locking of the screws themselves regardless of surface features. Surface qualities are very important for maintaining mechanical stability, mainly for the soft bone and for immediate loading. The biological factors determine and retain implant stability, so that the implant surface supports the bone’s biological healing process. Nova Active Surface® induces osseogeneration on the surface, thus accelerating and strengthening osseointegration, as compared to a machined surface.
The Nova Active Surface® layer enables bone growth directly on the surface, whereas the bone in the machined option only undergoes apposition from the osteotomic region. Histological tests showed that the bone responds faster to Nova Active Surface® where osseogeneration follows the screw outline in the initial healing stages => higher BIC, earlier.
- Maintaining the implant’s mechanical stability
During Week 1 of post implantation healing, the mechanical relaxation of the bone and the remodeling around the implant might impair implant stability and risk its success, mainly in areas of soft bone under heavy occlusal loading. The quick and strong osseointegration achieved with Nova Active Surface® maintains mechanical stability during healing.
The rough surface of the implant is good for its osseointegration and cellular response. Studies have shown that the best bone growth corresponds to surface cavities size of approximately 10μ. Growth of the bone tissue in such implant cavities provides a firm mechanical interlock between the implant and the bone.
First of all what is a Medical Implant?
A medical implant is a device manufactured to replace a missing biological structure, support a damaged biological structure, or enhance an existing biological structure. Medical implants are man-made devices, in contrast to a transplant, which is a transplanted biomedical tissue.
Why Surface Treatment?
The surface of implants that contact the body might be made of a biomedical material such as titanium, silicone or apatite depending on what isthe most functional. Under ideal conditions, implants should initiate the
desired host response. Ideally, the implant should not cause any undesired reaction from neighboring or distant tissues. However, the interaction between the implant and the tissue surrounding the implant can lead to complications. The process of implantation of medical devices is subjected to the same complications that other invasive medical procedures can have during or post surgery along with several different complications. Common complications include infection, inflammation, and pain. Other complications that can occur include risk of rejection from implant induced coagulation and allergic foreign body response. Depending on the type of implant, the complications may vary.
So now we know that if an Implant is rejected we would be posed in a big issue starting with the complications all the way to the removal of the rejected Implant. The goal of the Surface Treatment procedure is to make the Surface of the Implant active.
A treated and active Implant surface will ensure better reception of red blood cells by the body and enable faster and better bone and tissue growth towards the Implant, while greatly reducing the instances of rejected Implants.